Skin whitening
Have you ever wondered why early childhood photos of many top celebrities show a much darker skin color then they have now? Have you also longed for a much whiter complexion? Then you should go for skin whitening treatments. Mainly the skin whitening ingredients works in two ways to give you a whiter skin: 1. By absorbing the UV rays, thus preventing the sun

from darkening your skin. 2. By reducing the production of melanin, the skin pigment found in your skin which is responsible for skin darkening.
Most skin whiteners currently on the market contain ingredients (hydroquinone, ascorbic acid, kojic acid, arbutin, azealic acid, glycyrrhetinic acid (licorice extract)) that act as direct inhibitors of tyrosinase, the enzyme in the skin pigment cells (melanocytes) that make melanin.

Arbutin is a new type of skin de-pigmentation and whitening agents, an extract of Bearberry plant which produced by a solid /liquid extraction, an environmentally friendly process. Arbutin protect the skin against damage caused by free radicals, Arbutin is a skin whitening agent which is very popular in Japan and Asian countries for skin de-pigmentation, Arbutin inhibits the formation of melanin pigment by inhibiting Tyrosinase activity. It may be used to repress the virulence of bacterial pathogens and to prevent contaminating bacteria, it is also used for treating allergic inflammation of the skin . More recently, Arbutin has been used to prevent pigmentation and to whiten the skin beautifully. It can be used to whiten the skin, to prevent liver spots and freckles, to treat sunburn marks and to regulate melanogenesis.

Arbutin is very safe skin agent for external use which does not have toxicity, stimulation, unpleasant odor or side effect such as Hydroqinone.The encapsulation of Arbutin constitute a delivery system to potentialize the effect in time. It is a way to incorporate the hydrophilic Arbutin in lipophilic media. Arbutin give three main properties; Whitening effects, anti- age effect and UVB/ UVC filter .

There is an increasing awareness that vitamin C has a wide variety of role in human health. New therapeutic uses are being investigated daily, among recent discoveries is that Vitamin C can play important role in the health and beauty of your skin. Vitamin C as ascorbyl form has been tested extensively and reported in journal of American Academy of Dermatology to inhibit the production of the melanin (Melanin is the pigment which give the skin it’s dark color), when Vitamin C inhibit the production of the melanin, a lighter and brighter skin will reveal in just few weeks.

Vitamin C does more than that also, vitamin C is required for collagen synthesis, which declines markedly in aging skin. As we grow older, we suffer diminished micro capillary circulation within our skin, which deprives our skin cells of the supply of vitamin C it needs for youthful collagen synthesis. The topical application of vitamin C in a skin-penetrating medium can dramatically enhance the availability of vitamin C for collagen production.

Vitamin C regenerates vitamin E in the skin. An antioxidant like vitamin E can only suppress a limited number of free radicals before it runs out of electrons to donate. Vitamin C regenerates vitamin E and enables vitamin E to provide sustained antioxidant protection in the skin’s elastin fibers.

Vitamin C plays a vital role in skin repair. When your skin is injured, its Vitamin C content is used up rapidly in the scavenging of free radicals, and in synthesizing collagen to speed healing.

Glycyrrhetinic acid, isolated from Glycyrrihiza glabra (licorice) is widely used in cosmetic industry. Licorice inhibit tyrosinase activity of melanocytes without any cytotoxicity, it also showed that UV-B–induced pigmentation and erythema can be inhibited by topical application of 0.5% Licorice The anti-inflammatory properties of Licorice were attributed to inhibition of superoxide anion production and cyclooxygenase activity.

As a fungal metabolic product, kojic acid inhibits the catecholase activity of tyrosinase, which is the rate-limiting, essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of the skin pigment melanin. Kojic acid also is consumed widely in the Japanese diet with the belief that it is of benefit to health. Indeed, it has been shown to significantly enhance neutrophil phagocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by phytohemagglutinin. Melanocytes treated with kojic acid become nondendritic with a decreased melanin content. Additionally, it scavenges reactive oxygen species that are excessively released from cells or generated in tissue or blood.

This tyrosinase inhibitor was isolated from a plant herbal extract. The plant roots from which paper mulberry was isolated were collected in Korea. The tyrosinase inhibition of paper mulberry was compared to kojic acid and HQ. The IC50, the concentration causing 50% inhibition of the activity of tyrosinase, was reported to be 0.396% compared to 5.5% for hydroquinone and 10.0% for kojic acid.

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